2019-2020 Changes in anti-East and Southeast Asian
Hate Crimes and/or Incidents

Voice ESEA’s Data Team worked with volunteers in identifying and distilling useful information to assist Voice ESEA with its aims of raising awareness and understanding the scope of anti-ESEA discrimination in the UK.

Voice ESEA issued Freedom of Information Act 2000 requests to 48 police bodies across the UK to determine the rates of police-reported hate crime against ESEAs in 2019 and 2020 in different regions. Click to find out what a hate crime is .

Read interview with our Data Team on Resonate here

Where data was non-zero for either year, we have provided percentage changes.

Where data was 0 for one or both years, we have cited the raw values.

The raw data is accessible via our full database of findings (subject to terms and conditions of use).

Missing data

For aggregated national figures, please review the below.*

United Kingdom**:




Northern Ireland:

If you require assistance with hate crime, please see resources on Protection Approaches here available in multiple ESEA languages.

*Guidance notes

  • **Comparing data**: **We have received notices from police forces that an individual police force’s response to the relevant questions should not be used for comparison purposes with other responses received. However, although police information may come in multiple formats, the figures may help provide an indication of the prevalence of hate crimes in certain jurisdictions over others and an overall picture of the rise in hate crimes in the UK. Nonetheless, where Voice ESEA has produced aggregated figures of our police-reported hate crimes (i.e., for UK, Wales and England), please consider how the inputs contain different identifiers and exercise caution in using the information. Except for United Kingdom, the aggregated figures for England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland also exclude results from the British Transport Police, Civil Nuclear Constabulary and Ministry of Defence Police.
  • Completeness of data: These rates may not be reflective of the full scale of figures, given victims may not wish to report such incidents to the police for a variety of reasons.
  • Completeness of data: UK police forces are routinely required to provide crime statistics to government bodies and the recording criteria is set nationally. However, the systems used for recording these figures are not generic, nor are the procedures used locally in capturing the crime data.
  • Identifying ESEA individuals: In some cases, the police force has loosely defined its groupings, for example “Asian” or “any other Asian background”. We have attempted to focus on the groupings which explicitly include ESEA identifiers, but this has not been possible in all instances. For example, some of the results captured may use identifier that is simply "Chinese," or may extend to the generic "Asian" category. There may be populations that are ESEA that have not been identified and therefore the figures may be understated for certain regions and in other cases, the category "Asian" used by certain police forces may result in overstated figures when considering the ESEA demographic.
  • Differences in reporting: Some police forces have counted both reported hate crimes and hate incidents (i.e. non-crime hate incidents), whereas others have only included reported hate crimes.

The data systems used by police forces may be part of a ‘living’ system in that it is constantly being updated. As such the data may only be verifiable in relation to the date/time extracted.

The material and information contained on this page is for general information purposes only and has been retrieved and interpreted from the original underlying FOIA request responses received from respective police forces. Voice ESEA cannot guarantee the accuracy, quality, validity, completeness or suitability of the material provided for any particular purpose and such material may be subject to inaccuracies or errors. Voice ESEA does not and will not accept liability for any such inaccuracies or reliance upon such information and shall be under no obligation to notify any person of any error.

The material and information contained on this page may be subject to copyright and other laws, as well as the rights of third parties.